Author Archives: Eléonore Francois

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RAPPORT FINAL ETUDE IUFN-MEDDE – MESURER LES IMPACTS DE L’APPROCHE TERRITORIALE DE L’ALIMENTATION

RAPPORT FINAL DE L’ETUDE IUFN-MEDDE | MESURER L’IMPACT DES APPROCHES TERRITORIALES DE L’ALIMENTATION

“Se mettre en capacité de pouvoir mesurer, c’est s’assurer d’une plus grande visibilité et lisibilité de l’action stratégique engagée et d’une maitrise du processus opérationnel. S’intéresser à l’évaluation d’impact des systèmes alimentaires territorialisés, permet de creuser la question de la pertinence de l’approche territoriale de l’alimentation comme alternative possible au système alimentaire conventionnel en ramenant la réflexion sur un niveau plus accessible, plus facilement saisissable, celui d’un territoire.”

 

En France, l’ancrage territorial de l’alimentation est désormais l’une des priorités de la politique agricole et alimentaire du ministère de l’Agriculture. D’autres acteurs se saisissent du sujet – la Sénatrice EELV Brigitte Allain vient de publier un rapport inspirant ‘Et si on mangeait local ?’ et l’Association des Régions de France signe en juin dernier la Déclaration de Rennes pour des systèmes alimentaires territorialisés (SAT), comme un appel à un meilleur équilibre des relations ville-campagne. La société civile, mobilisée depuis longtemps sur le sujet, propose alors un vivier d’expérimentations et d’innovations terrain inépuisable et sans cesse renouvelé.

Les acteurs territoriaux et nationaux expriment ainsi leur volonté d’avancer concrètement et d’engager les territoires dans des démarches structurantes. Cette réalité témoigne de l’importance accordée par ces acteurs à la thématique de l’alimentation durable pour tous.

Toutefois, et sans vouloir aucunement sabrer l’élan positif que ces démarches portent en elles, il semble important de s’interroger dès à présent sur la capacité réelle de ces actions à contribuer à la création des systèmes alimentaires plus durables. Dans la perspective de l’amélioration de l’efficacité des politiques publiques, il s‘agit alors de questionner les impactspositifs et négatifs  – des approches territorialisées de l’alimentation.

C’est dans cette perspective qu’à la fin de l’année 2014, IUFN a proposé au ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l’Energie, de conduire une étude afin de s’interroger sur la mesure de l’impact de l’approche territoriale de l’alimentation – Etude Impacts des Systèmes alimentaires territorialisés – Mesurer l’impact des approches territoriales de l’alimentation.

Le but de cette étude était alors double :

  • d’une part produire des recommandations à destination des acteurs français pour soutenir le développement des systèmes alimentaires territorialisés en France,
  • d’autre part de mieux comprendre ce que ce que le fait de mesurer l’impact de l’approche territoriale de l’alimentation voulait dire et comment les acteurs français pouvaient se doter  de moyens pour pouvoir mesurer l’impact des actions entreprises.

L’étude a donné lieu à deux rapports aux visées complémentaires.  Le rapport de recherche, plus détaillé et doté de références bibliographiques multiples, puis le rapport opérationnel, visant à transmettre aux acteurs français des recommandations pour une meilleure prise en compte de l’évaluation de l’impact dans la construction des politiques alimentaires territorialisées.

/// RAPPORT OPERATIONNEL

Ce rapport est une synthèse des principaux résultats opérationnels de l’étude menée durant les dix derniers mois. Vous y trouverez les retours des territoires pionniers étudiés – Toronto au Canada, et Bristol au Royaume-Uni – sur les opportunités et les difficultés que représente l’étude des impacts des approches territoriales de l’alimentation, mais également sur les facteurs clés qui permettent le succès de la mise en place de telles approches.

La deuxième partie du rapport propose les éléments de diagnostic du contexte français qui donnent un aperçu des champs de compétences des collectivités territoriales leur permettant de mettre en place une politique alimentaire territorialisée et durable. Des recommandations à destination des acteurs publics français (collectivités et acteurs nationaux) sont alors formulées, notamment pour une meilleure prise en compte de la démarche de mesure d’impact dans les différentes phases de développement des systèmes alimentaires territorialisés. (lien vers site web)

/// RAPPORT DE RECHERCHE

Pour une immersion plus profonde dans le sujet, vous pourrez également prochainement consulter le rapport de recherche, rapport détaillé de l’étude, enrichi d’annotations bibliographiques.

/// VIDEO DU WEBINAR DE RESTITUTION

Visionnez l’enregistrement du webinar de restitution du 8.12.2015 en cliquant sur le titre ci-dessus.

SUITES DE L’ETUDE

Cette étude est une première étape qui permet d’entamer une réflexion sur la mesure de l’impact des approches territoriales de l’alimentation. Au-delà des résultats encourageant sur la transversalité des impacts de ces approches, elle a permis de révéler notamment le manque de données et d’outils des collectivités pour évaluer l’impact à l’échelle du territoire. Elle a également souligné le besoin de poursuivre les recherches en termes de méthodologie de mesure d’impact.

La mesure d’impacts des systèmes alimentaires est désormais un axe structurant du travail d’IUFN. Cette étude est une première étape. En 2016, s’appuyant sur des partenariats avec le monde de la recherche et celui des collectivités territoriales, nous allons poursuivre ce chantier avec un programme de travail riche :

Questionner les impacts spécifiques et animer des débats recherche-collectivités sur les indicateurs de mesure pertinents.
  • Série de webinars (en FR et ENGL) en partenariat avec le CCRE (Conseil des Communes et des Régions d’Europe) portant sur la mesure de l’impact des systèmes alimentaires territorialisés dans les 6 thèmes clefs du Urban Food Policy Pact de Milan
Se doter d’outils de mesure d’impacts pertinents pour soutenir une action efficace des acteurs locaux.
  • A travers les missions d’accompagnement des collectivités dans la mise en place des projets alimentaires territoriaux, permettre la confrontation des outils d’analyse ou de mesure d’impact avec la réalité du terrain.

Pour toute question concernant ces activités, merci de bien vouloir contacter Markéta Braine-Supkova, Directrice générale d’IUFN ou Eléonore François, Chargée de projet, responsable de cette étude.

Zagreb © joyfull / Shutterstock.com

French regions officially supporting the development of territorial food systems

French regions committed to the development of regional food systems during the conference organized by the Brittany region and association of French regions (ARF) on July 4th 2014, in Rennes.

This conference, held under the patronage of Pierrick Massiot, President of the Brittany region, was part of the official events organized by France for the International Year of Family Farming promoted by the UN General Assembly.

Offering an alternative to agro-food industry and mass consumption, regional food systems aim at re-valuing the products from short supply-chains, and favoring family farming, small enterprises and alternative supply chains. They limit environmental impact and waste along the food chain.

The conference in Rennes, which gathered around 200 elected representatives, civil servants and experts, presented innovative practices of given territories and international cooperation opportunities between the North and the South.

The signature of the Rennes Declaration on Territorial Food Systems ARF 2015 allowed regions to officially present their interest in and their commitment to regional food systems. The ARF wishes mainly to “further encourage French regions in promoting regional food systems on their territory and in their actions for international cooperation”.

Through the Declaration, the French regions call for the creation of a stronger link between regional policies, reinforced by the recent transfer of management from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), and the national agricultural policy. They commit to develop synergies taking into account the characteristics of regional systems in creating regional rural development programs.

Download the Declaration in French - Déclaration de Rennes pour des Systèmes alimentaires territorialisés or in English –   Rennes Declaration on Territorial Food Systems ARF 2015.

For more information (in French), please visit the ARF’s website.

Daniel and Nina Carasso

Launch of IPES-Food – a new group of high level scientists on sustainable food systems

The Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation established an International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food).

IPES-Food initiative addresses evidence-based advocacy on sustainable food systems and diets. This group of high-level scientists aims to provide the policy makers, the private sector and the public at large with the evidence to guide a transition towards sustainable food systems and diets.

The food challenge requires that today modes of production, supply chain and consumption are rethought and reworked. This cannot be allowed to emerge slowly. It must be actively pushed and promoted. The evidence for the need to significantly change our food systems and diets is increasingly strong. As declared by Prof. Olivier De Schutter, who is finalizing his mandate as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, “Producing more food will not do. Food systems must be reshaped with a view to ensuring social equity and the reduction of rural poverty, protecting our resource base and delivering better health outcomes. Multidisciplinary research is urgently needed to promote adequate solutions at policy and global levels. And it must include an analysis of consumer behaviour, to encourage sustainable consumption as an integral part of food systems reform.” Prof. De Schutter will co-chair IPES-Food, together with Dr Olivia Yambi.                                             

The aims of IPES-Food initiative

To achieve its objectives, IPES-Food seeks to:

  • Analyze and synthesize evidence in the field of sustainable food systems and diets
  • Identify gaps of knowledge and priority fields of research, encourage and guide research on sustainable food systems and diets
  • Develop tools for decision makers in order to determine national guidelines on sustainable diets
  • Influence stakeholders (policy makers, scientific communities, food chain actors, civil society, media, public at large)
  • Support concrete food policy transitions.

A long-term outlook (at least 5 years) is particularly important for such a complex, comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach that has not yet been widely recognized or adopted.

IPES-Food will be composed of between 25 and 30 members, appointed for their expertise and commitment to the issue, who contribute in their personal capacity, independently from their organization. IPES-Food is currently composed of 11 members and is co-chaired by Dr Olivia Yambi, nutritionist and former UNICEF representative to Kenya, and Prof. Olivier De Schutter, U.N. Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, until 30th May.

The members will cover a broad range of disciplines with complementary expertise spanning the entire breath and complexity of food systems.

At least, 75% of IPES-Food members will be high-level and internationally recognized scientists from relevant disciplines,including: ecology, environment, nutrition, food economy, food sociology, behavioural psychology, food policy, food legal background, food production, food processing and food consumption.

Other members will be actors on the ground (representatives of consumer associations, of the civil society…), experts in global prospective studies and creative thinkers with the ability to devise innovative ways to convey messages.

IPES-Food-EAT Initiative collaboration and overall partnership policy

The Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation joined forces with EAT Initiative (http://www.eatforum.org/). The instigators of both IPES-Food and EAT Initiative realized that bringing about the necessary policy reforms, innovations and behavior changes to achieve sustainable food systems is a monumental task that cannot be achieved by any organization or initiative alone. Sharing the same concerns and overall aims, they have decided to join forces and plan their initiatives in a closely coordinated way, building on their respective strengths, to create synergies and complement each other. IPES-Food will contribute its analysis and synthesis of scientific evidence and messages as a contribution to the science agenda of EAT Initiative and will use the annual EAT Stockholm Food Forum as a major platform for outreach and communication.

Driven by its collaborative spirit, the Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation plans to bring into the initiative additional funding and operating partners (foundations, scientific organizations, intergovernmental bodies and leading advocacy organizations such as NGOs) to further strengthen the initiative and bolster its capacity to achieve its ambitious goal.

“Initially, IPES-Food has a specific task and remit, but the Foundation is aware that its work could evolve in different directions regarding its linkages with civil society, governments and private sector. The fact remains, however, that the world currently lacks a global scientific advisory body that looks at sustainable food systems in all their complexity. This is what EAT Initiative and IPES-Food collaboration will bring. One possible and desirable direction would be to see a broadly supported Intergovernmental Initiative emerge that will address this crucial issue,” specified Mrs Marie-Stéphane Maradeix, Executive Secretary of the Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation.

The Premio Daniel Carasso: an international award to support/encourage research in the field of sustainable food

The Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation’s vocation is to encourage research and promote innovation in sustainable food systems and diets. That desire for progress prompted the idea of the Premio Daniel Carasso in 2012.

The Premio is an international prize awarded every two years to a research scientist or a research team for outstanding work in the field of “sustainable food systems and diets for long term health”. More than just an award, the Premio is designed to promote innovative, cross-disciplinary research into food systems. The 2nd edition of the Premio Daniel Carasso was launched on April the 1st, 2014. Applications may be submitted till June 30th, 2014.

The Daniel and Nina Carrasso Foundation awards the winning entrant a prize of €100,000 and he/she will be the Foundation’s ambassador on the issue of sustainable food systems and diets on a period of two years.

For more information,visit the official web site: http://www.fondationcarasso.org

About the Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation

The Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation was established in 2010 in memory of Daniel Carasso, founder of Danone in France and Dannon in the USA, and his wife. The Foundation is very much a family organization. On its Executive Committee sit its president, Marina Nahmias, daughter of Daniel and Nina Carasso, her family and individuals with different expertise.

Under the aegis of the Fondation de France, the Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation supports sustainable food systems and art projects.

More information available on: http://www.fondationcarasso.org.

Land for food IUFN's workshop April 24-25th 2014, Paris (France) © IUFN/Julien Béchat

Did you say land use? – Follow up on IUFN’s LAND FOR FOOD Workshop

Land for food IUFN's workshop April 24-25th 2014, Paris (France) © IUFN/Julien BéchatGetting participants off the beaten tracks, opening their minds to new perspectives, to new collaborations. Creating a space to imagine together the solutions to preserve land for food around cities: the objective of IUFN’s international workshop LAND FOR FOOD was achieved!

Gathering more than 180 people over 2 days (researchers, local authorities, national decision-makers, associations, foundations, businesses, farmers, informed citizens, etc), the event was a succession of creative moments where plenty of ideas were exchanged. First of all, an Open Forum with 15 discussion groups around a key question: “What new questions, new perspectives and what new links around land can we imagine together in order to sustainably feed our cities?”.  Then, a buzzing day at the heart of UNESCO with 11 co-design workshops addressing particular challenges of this complex question, featuring invited expert speakers.

IUFN Team LAND FOR FOOD © IUFN/ Julien Béchat 2014

 

BROWSE the workshop’s dedicated page and….
WATCH FILMED INTERVIEWS WITH INVITED SPEAKERS
DOWNLOAD PHOTOS of the Open Forum’s huge brainstorming
SYNTHESIS OF THE OPEN FORUM coming soon, as well as the documents capitalizing the co-design workshops.
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Future of EU food safety and nutrition policy

The provision of safe, nutritious, high quality and affordable food to Europe’s consumers is the central objective of EU policy, which covers all stages of the EU food supply chain, “from farm to fork”. Its standards and requirements aim to ensure a high level of food safety and nutrition within an efficient, competitive, sustainable and innovative global market.

However, a series of emerging challenges and risks could put the currently successful European food system under severe stress. These challenges include demographic imbalances, climate change, resource and energy scarcity, slowing agricultural productivity, increasing concentration of the supply chain, price volatility, changing diet trends and the emergence of anti-microbial resistant strands.

Foresight analysis on “Delivering on EU Food Safety and Nutrition in 2050 – Scenarios of future change and policy responses” is a first step of the Directorate-General for Health and Consumers’ (DG SANCO) Foresight Project for future food policy development.

The project aims to provide insight and guidance for future policy-making and the research which underpins EU policy in this area by identifying the:

  • critical challenges to EU food legislative framework;
  • future evolution of the challenges (in years 2020, 2030 and 2050);
  • impacts of current challenges on EU’s food legislative framework;
  • potential critical changes in the current framework necessary to maintain the prevailing high standards.

Download the report here.

More information on DG SANCO here.

Urbact III - un nouvel agenda urbain pour l'Europe

Urbact III – Towards a new European urban agenda

Urbact is a European exchange and learning program financed by the European Union and the member States promoting sustainable urban development. It enables cities to work together to develop solutions to major urban challenges, by coordinating exchange and learning between cities and by providing support and funding for project operations. It gathers 500 cities, 29 countries and 7,000 active participants.

Urbact III is the third Urbact program to be launched and will be delivered across the 2014-2020 programming period under the patronage of France. More particularly, the General secretariat of the inter-ministerial comity of the city (SG-CIV) will be in charge of managing Urbact III. The program will cover all of the 28 Member States of the European Union as well as the two partner countries of Norway and Switzerland and its budget will increase by 40% compared to the current program.

It is proposed that Urbact III will continue its work of promoting the sharing of knowledge and good practice between cities and other levels of government while trying to go further. Urbact wants to encourage cities to develop a strategy of sustainable urban development with all the relevant stakeholders of a given territory. For this third program, Urbact III proposes to support knowledge access but also concrete learning exchanges between cities, in order to encourage the development and implementation of integrated urban policies in European cities. By supporting dialogue between local elected officials, technicians and other urban policy stakeholders across Europe, and by giving them access to the knowledge and methods that allow to think and to build the sustainable city, Urbact III will contribute to the Europe 2020 goals. Indeed, the program feeds and encourages the development of stronger and more vibrant European cities and helps tackle a range of emerging urban issues linked to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (the three Europe 2020 priorities). Among them: innovation and research, environment protection, low carbon economy or social inclusion and employment.

This program proposition for Urbact III will be sent by the end of June 2014 to the European Commission. After it is approved, the first calls for project proposals will be launched at the end of 2014/beginning 2015.

Several stakeholders, including IUFN, have been invited to give their opinion about this proposition of program, and the consultation continues online. Local administrations, the main target of Urbact’s program, are strongly invited to express their wishes and comments concerning this third program proposed.

More information on Urbact III is available here.

IUFN - China's Food System - Appetite for change

Appetite for change: transformations in China’s food system

“Shortages of good quality arable land and water scarcity help to explain why the Chinese state is becoming ever more anxious about food security, especially urban food security” explains British planner Kevin Morgan¹ . With more than half of its population living in cities, an urbanization rate expected to exceed 77% by 2050 and amongst the lowest ratios of arable land per capita, China’s urban food system is set to face extreme stresses in the very near future. According to the Food Climate Research Network (FCRN) recent major report Appetite for change: transformations in China’s food system, it has already been undergoing great economic, social and environmental changes.

Those to be highlighted include:
•    A large increase in the volume and diversity of foods produced, with particularly rapid growth in the livestock, aquaculture and horticultural sectors, and a rapidly growing food processing sector
•    Changes in supply chains,  including a gradual scaling up of production operations and various forms of horizontal and vertical integration in some supply chains
•    Growth of new forms of food retailing, including the emergence of supermarkets, convenience and fast food catering sectors
•    Greater international engagement, including imports (notably soy for livestock feed) and  growing horticultural and aquaculture exports, as well as inward investment by overseas manufacturers and retailers and outward investment in food production and processing overseas
•    Rapid growth in incomes and urbanization have led to significant changes in what people eat: diets are more diverse, consumption of animal products and processed foods has risen substantially, and there has been a growth in eating out of the home.

Urbanization is also identified as one of the major challenges. The authors highlight its main consequences on population’s health and on the environment. Indeed, urbanization has direct impact on diet and eating habits and consequently on our health. As far as environment is concerned, .if official policies try to preserve arable land around cities,, industrial and urban development place arable land under great pressure and the pollution of cities are a threat to food safety.
China is moving. A significant decline in hunger and malnutrition has been achieved through an improved access to affordable, diverse and enjoyable food for local populations.  But according to FCRN, the key challenges for policy makers still need to be addressed. They include environmental pollution and degradation, food safety concerns and the rising prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases. In such a huge, diverse and rapidly transforming country as China, this requires both integrated approaches but also differentiated local policies that are sensitive to social, economic and environmental contexts and scales.  The report also emphasizes the potential of international collaboration to find solutions to issues that are not only faced by China.

¹Kevin Morgan (2013) The Rise of Urban Food Planning, International Planning Studies, 18:1, 1-4

The full report is available here.

More information on the Food Climate Research Network is available here.

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The Public Plate in New York City

“Each year, ten New York City agencies serve an estimated 260 million meals, making the City one of the largest meal providers in the world. With the rising prevalence of diet-related disease and mounting evidence of the crucial role of nutrition in determining health, interest has escalated in what urban planner Kevin Morgan has called “the public plate” as a lever for improvement of public health. Others have noted that the sourcing of food for the public plate can support local and regional agriculture. At the same time, environmentalists have raised concerns about the handling of waste from meals, and about the carbon footprint and other environmental implications of urban food procurement practices. Institutional meals are an important defense against hunger, a problem that continues to disrupt the lives and health of too many New Yorkers. Thus institutional food is at the intersection of health, economic development, environmental protection, and social justice.”¹

The new report, by the New York City Food Policy Center at Hunter College and the City University of New York School of Public Health, seeks to provide policy makers and advocates with the information they need to make decisions that will further strengthen New York City’s already robust institutional meals programs. To do so, the interdisciplinary working group analyzed the basic parameters of meal provision in public schools, child care and senior citizen programs, homeless shelters, jails, hospitals, and other settings. It then identified challenges, highlighted emerging solutions and provided recommendations for how the City of New York can continue to improve the nutritional quality and economic and environmental impact of the meals served not just in the ten agencies studied but for all New Yorkers.

The report explores the complex mix of institutional meals served by the City of New York. In the last seven years, since the establishment of the Office of the Food Policy Coordinator, NYC has made substantial progress in improving its institutional food programs and weaving them into a system that can achieve health, economic, environmental and social justice goals. The report highlights how the market power the city’s institutional food provides can make healthier food more affordable and available to all New Yorkers, as well as providing opportunities for job creation and economic growth. A great example to learn from!

The full report, executive summary and supplement are available here.

More information on the New York City Food Policy Council here.

¹Public Plate Report Working Group. The Public Plate in New York City: A Guide to Institutional Meals.New York City Food Policy Center at Hunter College, 2014.

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Scientists map food security and self-provision of major cities

Wealthy capital cities vary greatly in their dependence on the global food market. The Australian capital Canberra produces the majority of its most common food in its regional hinterland, while Tokyo primarily ensures its food security through import. The Copenhagen hinterland produces less than half of the consumption of the most common foods. For the first time, researchers have mapped the food systems of these three capital cities, an essential insight for future food security if population growth, climate change and political instability will affect the open market. The study was conducted by several partners in the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), an alliance addressing the grand challenges facing humanity, with a particular focus on climate change and sustainability.

“The three major cities in our study achieve food security by different degrees of self-provision and national and global market trade. It is important to understand such food flows in order to relate it to the energy challenge and the risk of national political unrest caused by food shortages and its effect on the open food trade,” says Dr. John R. Porter, Professor of Plant and Environmental Science from the University of Copenhagen, who is leading author on the study recently published online in the journal Global Food Security.

The three capital cities and accompanying capital regions or territories have populations that range over two orders of magnitude, situated within different global, climatic and physical locations and socio-economic contexts. Although the analysis is not predictive or prescriptive, it is intended to provide a better understanding of the effects of a globally coupled food system.

The research shows that higher farmland yields have influenced the cities self-provisioning over the past 40 years, but that, overall, the ability of cities to feed themselves is unlikely to keep pace with increasing population. The study has exclusively focused on the historical and current production and not considered whether changes in land management practices can increase productivity further or whether consumers are willing to limit their intake to local seasonally available goods. It did not include citizen-based production from allotments, urban gardens etc.

The authors call attention on “the need to determine the food security and self-provisioning capacity of a wide range of rich and poor cities, taking into account the global location of the ecosystems that are provisioning them.” They conclude their study by raising the pressing question of the degree to which governments will remain committed to open food trade policies in the face of national political unrest caused by food shortages.

The full study is available here.